In 2022, mobility was . . . connected nan move. This was a twelvemonth of transition, which included immoderate leaps guardant and immoderate retrenchments. A fewer indicators of disruption became rather visible—even portion of regular life. More and much electrical vehicles (EVs) tin now beryllium seen cruising down nan roads. Newly installed charging points are popping up successful galore countries. Novel business models (for instance, cars arsenic a subscription work aliases arsenic a direct-to-consumer product) person blossomed. In metropolis centers, car usage has travel nether expanding scrutiny from authorities authorities, and micromobility options, specified arsenic electrical scooters, are increasing.
As for different realms of mobility, 2022 was a twelvemonth for realignment. Investments successful aerial mobility grounded to adjacent 2021’s record, though galore players are advancing their technologies and inching person to regulatory approval. The fanfare astir autonomous driving—once nan taxable of record-breaking backing announcements, seemingly connected a play basis—has apparently subsided. But starring entrants are making tremendous technological progress, scaling their operations crossed aggregate cities, and laying a way toward greater customer acceptance.
The automotive assemblage faced important headwinds, generated successful ample portion by geopolitical issues and macroeconomic uncertainty. Many automakers person handled this difficult situation pinch aplomb, building resilience successful nan anticipation of a challenging near-term future. Some suppliers are suffering because of proviso concatenation challenges and nan contraction of nan internal-combustion-engine market, but pockets of maturation stay for those that tin enactment boldly.
In this article, we shed ray connected nan astir important developments of nan past 12 months and usage nan lenses of technology, customer sentiment, and nan regulatory and operating environments to envision what those developments could mean successful nan twelvemonth to come.
Consumer psychology’s power connected mobility
A panoply of user archetypes—or personas—has been emerging and will play a domiciled successful shaping mobility’s future (Exhibit 1). Some personas will go much wide complete time. Others will slice aliases evolve.
In municipality areas, noncar-centric personas are poised to proliferate. Members of this group will astir apt waste their existent cars without replacing them, aliases astatine slightest thrust those cars overmuch little often, reducing nan wave of replacement and frankincense spending connected vehicles. Sometimes decisions will bespeak “eco-hyperawareness.” Sometimes they’ll consequence successful larger portion from concerns astir nan rising costs of car ownership.
Micromobility enthusiasts bask zipping astir municipality connected e-bikes and stand-up electrical scooters, aka e-kickscooters. These consumers thin to usage and ain different types of micromobility vehicles. The “multimodal urbanist” persona is partial to a benignant of portfolio play, believing there’s a due shape facet for immoderate fixed recreation purpose.
Car-centric user personas will endure, but their meaning of “car” mightiness grow to see emissions-free models. They mightiness besides statesman to supplement car usage pinch different types of mobility much often.
Micromobility evolves, minimobility enters nan scene
Before nan COVID-19 pandemic, backing levels successful nan shared-micromobility manufacture (primarily electrical bicycles, mopeds, and e-kickscooters) soared successful statement pinch increasing ridership. From 2015 to 2019, almost $7 cardinal was invested successful this market. Funding contracted sharply successful 2020, to astir $800 million, but the manufacture soon resumed its maturation trajectory, pinch superior flows rising again successful concert. In 2021, micromobility players attracted astir $2.9 cardinal successful caller investment, chiefly for e-kickscooters.
In 2023, we expect that investments successful nan privately held ecosystem supporting e-bikes will proceed apace but task that micromobility investors, successful general, will sharpen their attraction connected profitability. This could further nan industry’s ongoing consolidation. Meanwhile, finance flows mightiness proceed to displacement distant from Asia and toward Europe (Exhibit 2).
Another mobility conception has gained traction beneath nan surface. Minimobility options, which see three- and four-wheeled EVs that tin fresh 1 aliases 2 people, beryllium successful nan abstraction betwixt cars and bicycles. These vehicles person an mean weight from 100 to 500 kilograms (about 220 to 1,100 pounds) erstwhile unoccupied. Depending connected nan conveyance type and section regulations, their maximum velocity varies from 25 to 90 kilometers (about 15.5 to 56 miles an hour). If liking continues to rise, and regulators are connected board, nan minimobility conception could scope a full addressable marketplace of $100 cardinal annually crossed China, Europe, and North America by 2030. In a 2021 McKinsey study of 26,000 group crossed 8 countries, much than 30 percent of nan respondents stated that they were apt aliases very apt to see utilizing a minimobility conveyance arsenic 1 of their early mobility options. Viewpoints varied dramatically by geographic region, nevertheless (Exhibit 3).
Autonomous vehicles: The emergence of nan robo-taxi and robo-shuttle
In 2022, nan fortunes of various robo-taxi and robo-shuttle players diverged: immoderate discontinued development, while others announced fierce efforts to standard up their businesses. Strategic investors swallowed smaller players successful transactions that were chiefly intended for “acquihires.”
We expect consolidation to proceed successful 2023—especially for smaller and lagging competitors—which will yet fortify nan marketplace. Outside China, we task that only 2 to 4 players will yet supply afloat autonomous robo-taxi and robo-shuttle technology.
Consumers could use from per-mile costs little than those of different proscription options successful coming years (Exhibit 4). Robo-taxis mightiness beryllium favored successful nan United States. Europe will much apt favour robo-shuttles, which could bargain important modal operation stock from backstage vehicles, truthful that cities and citizens tin reclaim abstraction from backstage cars.
Air mobility continues to pull funding
Urban and precocious aerial mobility—a conception that includes electrical vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft—enjoyed record backing successful 2021: astir $6.9 cardinal successful caller investments. Funding cooled successful 2022, partially arsenic a consequence of macroeconomic conditions, but remained good up of its pre-pandemic gait (Exhibit 5).
Leading eVTOL players are pursuing fierce clip lines, hoping to execute important certifications by nan mid-2020s. Meanwhile, incumbents are trying to drawback up: 72 percent of nan largest 25 craft OEMs and 64 percent of nan largest 25 suppliers now participate successful immoderate type of precocious aerial mobility activity. The upcoming twelvemonth will airs a important trial for entrants that wish to enactment connected way for near-term formation certification.
EV uptake differs by region and segment
A successful net-zero modulation will require dramatically accrued EV income successful coming decades (Exhibit 6). Recent trends person included immoderate location divergences successful EV take rates. Last year, uptake roseate by astir 80 percent successful China and by astir 40 percent successful nan United States (compared pinch 2021). But Europe remains astir astatine 2021 levels. The slowdown reflects declining subsidies, precocious prices for electricity, and nan rising costs of earthy materials—up 120 percent for lithium, to springiness 1 example.
If conditions don’t change, EV income successful nan European Union could proceed to slow. So could wide car sales, arsenic individual mobility becomes much and much costly for galore Europeans. Meanwhile, successful nan United States, semipermanent uptake could beryllium accelerated by precocious legislated subsidies that support EV purchasing, artillery compartment production, and nan build-out of charging infrastructure. With a continued generous regulatory push, nan United States could scope EV penetration connected par pinch European levels.
An EV take disagreement has besides begun to look betwixt segments. Buyers successful nan premium 1 are little value delicate and much apt to complaint electrical vehicles astatine home. Premium OEMs are besides mounting eager EV targets. As a result, nan premium conception is 2 years up of nan measurement conception successful nan gait of electrification.
Batteries stay successful precocious demand
As a consequence of accrued EV production, request for batteries is surging—and further acceleration is expected (Exhibit 7). To supply commensurate supply, much and larger artillery factories will beryllium needed astir nan world. So far, announcements astir early artillery proviso capabilities astir lucifer expected demand. But we task that a important information of announced early proviso will not materialize successful a timely manner, truthful shortages will astir apt occur.
Regional mismatches successful proviso and demand could create further bottlenecks. Despite rising section demand, China will astir apt proceed to person important excessive accumulation capacity, for instance, while Europe and North America mightiness not beryllium capable to meet their ain section request for compartment production. The US Inflation Reduction Act, pinch its subsidies for artillery makers, has made North American accumulation a much appealing option. Further location regulatory announcements could reshape nan attractiveness of artillery accumulation successful different locales, specified arsenic Europe.
To support nan scale-up, artillery manufacturers will request to unafraid further manufacturing instrumentality and earthy materials. This could airs challenges. Australia and Chile, for example, now nutrient astir 70 percent of nan world’s proviso of lithium—which could beryllium a limiting factor. Supply concatenation snags, and shortages of earthy materials specified arsenic nickel, could besides power shifts successful favored artillery chemistry. Eventually, nan artillery marketplace could beryllium moreover much dramatically disrupted by developments successful next-gen batteries (for example, silicon anode and solid-state varieties), arsenic good arsenic caller technologies, specified arsenic sodium ion.
Europe must ramp up nan charging infrastructure
With much EVs connected roads successful Europe, it will request a awesome build-out of its EV-charging infrastructure. A caller study suggests that successful moreover nan astir blimpish scenario, nan EU-27 will require astatine slightest 3.4 cardinal operational public-charging points by 2030—a important measurement up from nan estimated 375,000 charging stations successful 2021 (Exhibit 8).
Extensive inferior grid upgrades will beryllium basal to administer energy to these caller charging stations. Higher renewable-energy accumulation capacity will beryllium needed to proviso those grids pinch cleanable power. In all, nan build-out of Europe’s EV-charging infrastructure mightiness cumulatively costs upward of €240 cardinal by 2030.
Semiconductor shortages persist
Demand for automotive semiconductors continues to outpace supply, but nan spread varies by node size (Exhibit 9). For nodes greater than 90 nanometers (nm), which are successful precocious request by nan automotive industry, nan shortage is apt to persist because mature nodes person debased profit margins. Some customers worth nan debased value points for these nodes and person small inducement to migrate to smaller ones. For wafers from 22 to 65 nm, nan shortage will not beryllium afloat resolved complete nan short to mean word but whitethorn lessen if (as expected) semiconductor companies summation supply. Overall, however, it is difficult to foretell nan size of nan demand–supply spread for circumstantial products that usage smaller nodes, because of nan precocious heterogeneity of instrumentality types and technologies. Semiconductor shortages will astir apt persist until 2026, fixed nan agelong lead times for spot manufacturing.
To mitigate spot proviso issues, OEMs tin return respective steps, including these:
- establishing power rooms that harvester unit from procurement, proviso concatenation management, and income to thief guarantee that near-term supplies of semiconductors don’t driblet to unacceptable levels
- charting clear exertion roadworthy maps that much precisely specify early semiconductor needs (for next-generation products, among different things)
- jointly investing pinch suppliers successful projects to amended capacity
The increasing value of software
Automotive companies and their suppliers proceed to put heavy successful software. By 2030, the world automotive package and electronics market is expected to scope $462 billion—a 5.5 percent CAGR from 2019 to 2030 (Exhibit 10).
In contrast, nan wide automotive marketplace for rider cars and ray commercialized vehicles is projected to turn astatine a compound yearly complaint of only 1 percent during nan aforesaid period. This divergence, reflecting a important displacement successful nan early of mobility, has been propelled by nan description of municipality entree restrictions, specified arsenic bans connected internal-combustion-engine vehicles successful metropolis centers; nan rising take of nonownership models, including car sharing and micromobility; and disruptive technologies, specified arsenic municipality autonomous driving. In this environment, automotive companies look to package and electronics arsenic nan adjacent frontier for transforming nan industry.
Ongoing unit connected automotive suppliers
Over nan past 4 years, arsenic players crossed nan automotive worth concatenation accrued their margins, nan profitability of automotive suppliers fell by half. In 2022, nan separator pressures for automotive suppliers accelerated for various reasons, including shortages of semiconductors and energy, expanding costs for earthy materials and freight, proviso guidelines consolidation, shrinking demand, and nan volatility (sometimes daily) of automotive accumulation volumes (Exhibit 11).
In 2023, we task that separator pressures will proceed because of ongoing macroeconomic, geopolitical, and technological disruptions. Increases successful nan costs of labour and power could adhd to nan squeeze. Automotive suppliers will request to attraction connected keeping their costs successful check. Possible costs simplification measures see these:
- ensuring that OEMs supply beardown support (through, for example, indexation, raw-material clauses, aliases nonstop aliases directed bargain programs) to compensate for value increases
- revising OEM contracts and booking longer-term commitments to stabilize volumes
- adapting portfolios and canceling smaller, unprofitable programs
- rightsizing footprints and overhead costs
We besides task that suppliers of components for internal-combustion-engine vehicles will acquisition early consolidation arsenic accumulation of those vehicles declines.
Demand for zero-emissions trucks
For electrical ray commercialized vehicles, lucky instrumentality maturation successful request could outstrip supply. In this market, galore companies are looking for zero-emissions transportation vehicles because of various factors:
- more stringent decarbonization regulations successful some nan United States and Europe, astatine nan nationalist and nan metropolis levels
- environmental, social, and governance accounting standards (which grow accountability crossed nan worth chain) for scope-3 emissions
- the desire to return advantage of emerging low-cost financing to trim nan costs of a modulation to zero-emissions vehicles
- greater firm commitments to eager emissions simplification targets successful consequence to rising user request for much sustainable products
- fluctuating power prices and a wide diminution successful nan costs of artillery packs, some of which are pushing nan full costs of ownership toward parity—even today, successful definite usage cases—between zero-emissions vehicles and their diesel-powered counterparts (Exhibit 12)
In 2022, mobility shifted distant from awesome caller announcements and concepts and toward a sharpened attraction connected implementation and scaling. Traditional OEMs and tier-one suppliers remained preoccupied pinch nan short-term effects of proviso concatenation issues and nan modulation to electrical vehicles. Disruptors marched ahead—but faced expanding consolidation. Meanwhile, regulators continued to unit players to decarbonize much quickly. Cities ramped up their urban-mobility initiatives. And user liking successful sustainable (and shared) mobility accelerated further and will almost surely proceed to accelerate.
The manufacture scenery will person a very different style beyond 2030. But nan adjacent 18 to 24 months could bespeak who nan winners connected nan different broadside of that translator mightiness be.
The authors wish to convey Susanne Birkhold, Saral Chauhan, Julian Conzade, Michael Guggenheimer, Antonia Gutzler, Martin Hattrup-Silberberg, Benedikt Kloss, Nicolas Laverty, Patrick Schaufuss, Alexandre van de Rijt, and Felix Ziegler for their contributions to this article. Additionally, nan authors wish to convey each members of nan McKinsey Center for Future Mobility squad for their investigation activities successful 2023.